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What Happened On October 30th, Significant Events On This Day In World History.

1340 Battle of Rio Salado Battle (or Tarifa): King Afonso IV of Portugal and King Alfonso XI of Castile defeat Sultan Abu al-Hasan 'Ali of Morocco and Yusuf I of Granada, last Marīnids invasion of Iberian Peninsula

1899 Battle of Ladysmith, Natal: Boers defeat the British, leading to the Siege of Ladysmith

1905 "October Manifesto" Russian Tsar Nicholas II grants civil liberties and accepts the first Duma (Parliament)

1917 British government gives final approval to Balfour Declaration

1973 The Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey is completed, connecting the continents of Europe and Asia over the Bosporus for the first time


1921 "The Sheik", a silent film starring Rudolph Valentino, premieres in Los Angeles



1944 Aaron Copland's ballet score "Appalachian Spring" premieres in Washington, D.C. with Martha Graham dancing lead role



1974 The Rumble in the Jungle: Muhammad Ali KOs George Foreman in the 8th round in Kinshasa, Zaire


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The rant about artists not being supportive or inclined to helping other upcoming artist has gone on long enough to drag the attention of some note worthy personalities.

The Nollywood actor and filmmaker, Nnaemeka Charles Eze, popularly known as, Nani Boi has commendably become a man of many parts. He is also an OAP and author of many books, most of which are being studied in schools. The Enugu State born graduate of Geology from University of Nigeria, Nsukka took to his Instagram account to point out the stress on artists not helping other artists; particularly the South-East artists.

He wrote;


Though this has been a hot topic for discussion in the past few months, we still haven’t arrived at an agreeable conclusive notion.

It’s been a non fact that artists find it rather difficult to comment or speak well of their fellow artists in an interview or other artists are being reviewed; yet they go on and on about how we (society as a whole) should work towards improving a deep respect for art appreciation. 

              This has been defined to be a fake social media popularity approach.

Following the write up made by Naniboi; stating that these already ‘BLOWN’ artists find it almost impossible to help the upcoming artists because of the negative vibes/results gotten off from other ‘BLOWN’ artists who have played the role of a messiah in the lives of these upcoming artists.

The upcoming artists in the South-East are most times left to attain their own level of fame with little or no help from the already established artists. While this may be because of fear of being overshadowed by these upcoming artists; it may also be a reaction to past disappointments on the part of the already established artists.

Some other concerned individuals have also affirmed to the notion that ‘South-East artists do not support upcoming artists’ but Naniboi has instinctively derived a different plausible premise to this argument.

Who do you think is to be blamed and what can be done? 

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From the day Shoprite opened their first store in Nigeria in 2005, they had a clear vision of how to conduct business in our country. With their high quality-to-price ratio and satisfying customer service, Shoprite has quickly won over the hearts of thousands of Nigerians. They continue to present new locations for the people to do their shopping at. It’s no wonder that by 2018 they’ve become the leading food retailer in Nigeria. With the positive publicity they’ve been getting, we are not surprised that with each new store Shoprite open, they want to make it bigger and better than the previous one. With rate people stream in and out of shoprite every hour of the day, markets might just be abandoned soon.

 Often, you may hear people talk about what is the biggest Shoprite mall, judging by the size of the mall itself, instead of the store inside. Before we start, let’s make one thing clear - there is no such thing as a Shoprite mall. They have individual stores that are almost exclusively located in malls, but that’s not the same thing. 

3. Shoprite in Ado Bayero Mall, Kano  was opened in 2014; this outlet marked Shoprite’s debut in northern Nigeria. Kano was an excellent choice as it is the most significant town in this part of the country. Knowing how Shoprite likes to do everything with flair, it’s only natural that they opened their newest store in the brand new Abo Bayero Mall. This beast of modern commerce-oriented architecture was in construction for three years and ended up costing a total of 110 Million Dollars.

 Interesting fact: The total territory of the Mall equals 24,100 square meters with Shoprite taking up the most space out all stores. The biggest Shoprite store at the time, cost the enterprise $20 Million to open, not counting employee fees. However, considering the number of upper and middle-class citizens that reside in Kano, you can’t argue that it was not a smart business decision. Despite the fact that this part of Nigeria has suffered dramatically in the last ten years, the opening of a Shoprite store can provide a small boost to the city’s economy. 

2. Shoprite in Ibadan Mall, Ibadan. The leading supermarket retailer opened this store in late 2014, and it became the second outlet in the old city. The local population proved to be excellent customers, so it stands to reason that Shoprite decided to widen their presence in Ibadan.

Interesting fact: The total footage of the Ibadan Mall stands at 19,000 square meters. While this Mall itself is smaller than the one in Kano, the Shoprite inside takes up more space than its “cousin”.

The store in Ibadan Mall has a territory of 4,700 square meters, making up one-fourth of the entire building. The outlet that held the title of the biggest Shoprite in Nigeria for two years provides about four hundred jobs to the local population. Thus, the store outlet is helping resolve unemployment problems, while delivering qualified training to its personnel. 

1. Shoprite in Novare Lekki Mall, Lekki 

As it stands right now, the biggest Shoprite in Nigeria is the one in Lekki, Lagos. This is the seventh location of the supermarket chain in the State. According to the claims of the Shoprite owners, it’s not only the largest one in the country but in entire West Africa as well. The biggest Shoprite is located in the largest mall in Lagos. It also comes with almost a thousand parking spots. Just recently this Shoprite store celebrated its one-year anniversary, having opened in August 2016.

Interesting fact: The Novare Lekki is 22,000 square meters in size. It is larger than the one in Ibadan but still smaller to the Ado Bayero Mall.

    Considering the rate at which Shoprite is continuously expanding in Nigeria, we can readily expect that we’ll have a bigger store soon enough. Even more so, the way things look right now, there’s going to be a new largest Shoprite every few years. But as for 2017, you have your answer. 


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·         A job is something you do simply to earn money; a career is a series of connected employment opportunities.

·         A job has minimal impact on your future work life, while a career provides experience and learning to fuel your future.

·         A job offers few networking opportunities, but a career is loaded with them.

·         When you work at a job, you should do the minimum without annoying the boss. When you're in a career, you should go the extra mile, doing tasks beyond your minimum job description.

Though I agree with Trent on many things — our financial philosophies are very similar — I don't agree with him on this. I believe that all jobs deserve your best effort, and I believe the distinction between a job and a career is artificial.



While I was still in school during my second year summer break, I got a sales person job at a ladies boutique. I knew nothing about how a boutique should or shouldn’t run but I was excited about the whole experience. I got to see young brilliant ladies come in everyday seeking for the perfect outfit for a date or simply for work. It was a thrilling experience; I wanted to do more than just packaging and giving receipts so I began researching on women’s clothing. While the other girls sat around in the restroom gossiping about how Ms. A spends too much money on bags, I buried myself in the internet. Soon enough I started giving fashion tips and I was able to recommend a particular outfit, bag or shoe to the customers for a particular event/occasion.

When my madam heard about how well I’ve been doing despite my initial blindness in the fashion world; she raised my salary by 15% while the gossip girls were still stuck on the initial #10,000 salary. Though I didn’t learn the twisted part of the fashion world, like why you need to wear a tight underneath a thick linen fabric; what I learnt was enough to take me two steps up the ladder from the gossip colleagues who were doing the minimum- and earning the minimum.


Two years later, I got a freelancing job with a news and information blog. My job was rather descriptive; I had a list of topics from which I would pick 5 topics to write an article on, weekly. So it was stress free and easily do-able since I just had to copy from different related blog posts on the internet and form mine. The articles I turned in weren’t original; they weren’t from my thoughts or even my own words.  So while the other writers offered their best and saw the job as a priority, I had no enthusiasm for the job.

Neither of us realized it then but our boss had a pull; so the other serious writers graduated from being just a freelance writer to having an office space, free Wi-Fi and a topped up salary.

 I found out later that my lack of initiatives in that seemingly meaningless work-freelance writing- had played a significant role in the decision not to hire me full time. For better or worse, this changed my destiny.

Lessons learned
In my young life, I've held a maze-like array of jobs. The two listed above are just representative examples. Few of my jobs have been related in the sense of a traditional “career”, but almost all of them have provided resources, skills, or connections that I could use in the future. I'm convinced that:

·         Every job is a part of your career. Some workers spend forty years in the same department at the same company. This is a career in the traditional sense of the word. Even if your working life is also a career and the jobs you’ve taken are largely unrelated; your career is made up of all your jobs, whether they're directly connected or not. Each one of them is important.

·         Every job provides skills and resources for the future. As much as you may hate to do certain things that may come with your job, you can never deny the fact that it provides skills and resources for the future. You may hate going door to door to sell your products/company products, but it is still remains an undeniable extra sauce to your marketing skills. You will learn that it never hurts to ask, you’ll learn how to deal with rejection and negative feedback. You’ll have to learn how to communicate with a huge variety of people; you will learn how to follow and how to lead. My brief stint as a freelance writer helped me develop techniques I now use to focus on the greater part of writing. Even my job as a sales person offered lessons about the value of hard work and a positive attitude.

·         Every job offers networking opportunities. You don't know where life will lead you. You don't know which co-workers or customers you will meet later and in what context. My sister, Cynthia used to make beads for a couple of months before she diverted her interest to baking and food; now she is the CEO to her own baking and food company. She's constantly drawing on the network of contacts she made while she made beads. In many ways, a non-traditional career like Cynthia's offers more opportunities to leverage relationships.

·         You should always do your best. Doing the minimum is rarely a good idea. Whether or not you think your current job is part of your career path, do your best. Do more than is asked of you. If you approach your work with a positive attitude, a willingness to learn, and a spirit of excellence, you will set yourself so far apart from your peers that your employers will be forced to take notice. It never hurts to do your best.

I'm not arguing that you should pour yourself into every job you ever have. But I do think you should treat most jobs as if they were important — because they are. They not only provide a source of immediate income, but it's possible that they can lead to better things in the future.

The disparity between a career and a job
Not all careers have a single unifying theme. Some careers are homogeneous, but many are not. My mum used to be a contract cook –which was something she loved and still loves to do- but now she’s a full-time lecturer. I worked as a boutique sales girl for few months- now I am a full-time writer. My sister made beads for 14 months- now she’s a professional baker. Each of us have a career, even if the jobs we do at the beginning do not seem to be related.

I think that for most people — whether they're on a traditional career path or not — a job is just a way to earn money. There are people who love their work, but even then not all of them are in a career. For most people, work is simply a necessary evil.

So what's the difference between a career and a job? I don't believe there is one. A career is simply a lifetime of jobs, whether those jobs are related or not. And while it's important to focus on your future goals, it's even more important to focus on doing the best you can right now at your current job.


There’s though one exception to my advice above- there are good jobs, bad jobs and then there are shitty jobs. Don’t ever settle for a shitty job. If you feel that a job has been sculptured to drain away your freewill, happiness and mentality; walk away. Some of us may not be very lucky to immediately get settled into that dream job while the rest of us go through so many strings of jobs before finally landing.

I think the vital lesson should be to never settle for a shitty job and still be willing to offer your best.

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             Free gym day at Lilburn services!!

Lilburn services, would be offering fitness enthusiasts in Enugu and beyond, a free gym day on the 27th of October 2018, from 8am to 12pm, in celebration of the second edition of Lilburn Lifestyle religion, the event would be taking place at No. 2 Lilburn Avenue along Abakaliki Rd before Emene Bridge, New Haven Extension Enugu. 

The wellness and fitness giant announced today, being Monday the 22nd of October 2018 that they; in the event themed ‘The Ultimate Fitness & Nutrition Hangout’ would be offering the good people of Enugu and beyond  the opportunity to make use of the state of the art facilities available in the Lilburn gym for zero payment.

Also other fitness activities such as swimming and tennis would be offered at a heavy discount; tennis would be offered at the discounted price of a hundred naira (#100) per set, while swimming which was previously a thousand naira would be enjoyed at five hundred naira (#500).

In addition to all the mouth watering offers listed above, their seasoned staff would be offering free nutrition, dieting and fitness lectures. The nutrition bay would be presenting their wellness supplements products in stock and also offer free nutrition assessment of participants.

To top it all, attendees would be receiving free giveaways from the establishment at the end of the event.

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There are just too many African leaders who have come to power either democratically or illegitimately and have refused to step down. They torture members of opposition parties, rig municipal and presidential elections, censor newspapers, radio and television stations that are critical of the despotic government, intimidate members of the press that are opposed to the government’s policies and amend the constitution so that they can rule the nation indefinitely. Such oppressive rule promote members of opposition parties and the military to carry out a coup as that is the only way in which the current government can step down and much-needed reforms brought about.


In the majority of the coups that have occurred, the military has deemed it a national and patriotic obligation to rescue the country from total collapse and thereby restore lost national prestige. Although these coups d’état have been executed in the guise of national interest and patriotic duty, more often than not, military regimes have turned out to be more corrupt, oppressive and downright inefficient than the civilian governments they deposed thus driving the civilians into even further suffering and turmoil..


Notes: Coup leaders must seize and hold central authority for at least one week to be considered a “successful” coup d’état.


Egyptian Revolution

The July 23, 1952 revolution by a group of young army officers, named as ‘The Free Officers Movement’ led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nassar, first started out to depose the leadership of King Farouk. However, they also had other political agenda such as their moves to abolish the constitutional monarchy and aristocracy of Egypt and Sudan, establish a republic and end the British occupation of the country. The significance of this coup is that not only did it inspire other countries to revolt, it also lead to the Suez Canal being nationalized which caused the Suez crisis which forced France and Britain to decolonize; while Muhammad Naguib became the first President of Egypt.


In February 2011, the then president Hosni Mubarak resigned after 18 days of mass protest and was succeeded by President Mohamed Morsi. Morsi was later deposed by the military in 2013 by the Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi who is now the current president.

Equatorial Guinea

On August 3, 1979, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo overthrew his uncle, the then-dictator Francisco Macias Nguema after fearing that he has gone mad for ordering the murders of several members of his family, including Obiang’s brother. Charged with a number of atrocities committed including the genocide of Bubi, Macias was executed by the firing squad on September 29, 1979. While the bloody coup d’état that ensued was shocking, what was more shocking was its aftermath when Obiang held power for three decades and funneled all the country’s wealth through his own bank accounts while the world questioned his part in his uncle’s atrocities.



On June 30, 1989, Omar a-Bashir, a colonel of the Sudanese Army led a bloodless coup against the unstable government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi. However, his 22 years in power had been marked with extreme violence as he issued purges and executions in the upper ranks of the army, banned associations of political parties and independent newspapers, and imprisoned journalists and political figures while his military bombed and killed untold numbers of civilians causing 100,000 to flee. He was charged with genocide of 300,000 people, war crimes, and embezzlement of millions of dollars by the International Criminal Court in 2003.



This Coup d’état began on March 21, 2012 as the mutinying Malian soldiers, who formed the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy, became displeased with President Amadou Toumani Touré’s management of the Tuareg rebellion from January to April. They attacked the capital of Barnako, including the presidential palace, military barracks, and the state-run television. The Tuareg rebellion was a series of insurgencies that dated back since 1916 as the rebels of the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad fought to gain independence for the northern region of Mali. The 2012 rebellion displaced 100,000 civilians, and killed almost 15,000 soldiers.

DRC Congo

On May 17 the forces of the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire (ADFL), with the support of Uganda, Angola, Rwanda and the USA, took Zaire’s capital Kinshasa and changed the name of the country to Democratic Republic of Congo putting an end to 31 years of dictatorship by Mobutu Sese Seko. Mobutu was chased from power in May after a seven-month rebellion led by a lifelong opponent, Laurent Desire Kabila. Throughout his rule, Mobutu swore that he would never be known as a former president, but only as the late president. In another characteristic boast, he often said that before him there was no Zaire, and that his country would not survive him either.

The old regime had become one of the most hated in Africa. Mobutu and the clique around him were specialists in extracting wealth from the country and the population and transferring it to their own pockets. The regime became known as a kleptocracy (rule of the thieves) and Mobutu has been aptly described as a “walking bank account with a leopard skin hat”.

Mobutu’s panicked flight into exile was merely the beginning of a humiliating end for a man whose almost constant presence at the front and center of the African political stage had turned him into one of the world’s most vainglorious leaders. France, Mobutu’s close ally until the bitter end refused to give him asylum. Similarly, Togo, a West African state ruled by another longtime dictator, Gnassingbe Eyadema, asked Mobutu and his large entourage of family and aides to leave the country just days after the exiled leader landed there. Finally, Morocco, another ally, took Mobutu in. For most of his four months there, the longtime dictator’s failing health kept him confined to hospitals.



General Idi Amin seized power from President Milton Obote, the man who led Uganda to independence in 1962. The general led a military coup while the president was out of the country attending the Commonwealth conference in Singapore.

Ugandan troops sealed off Entebbe airport and patrolled the capital’s streets of Kampala with tanks. The president’s residence was surrounded and major road links blocked.

Dr Obote himself became the country’s first prime minister in 1962 at the head of an uneasy coalition between his own Uganda People’s Congress and Sir Edward Mutesa of the Kabaka Yekka or King’s party who became president. Four years later Obote ousted the king and revised the constitution to make himself president.


Uganda has experienced four other coups as listed below:

April 11, 1979: Tanzania People’s Defense Force and Uganda

National Liberation Army overthrew Idi Amin

May 12, 1980: Paulo Muwanga overthrows Godfrey Binaisa

July 27, 1985: Tito Okello Lutwa overthrows Milton Obote

January 26, 1986: Yoweri Museveni and the National Resistance Army overthrow Tito Okello Lutwa


The junta, called the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy overthrew the government and identified its leader as squadron chief Salou Djibo on er10th February 2010. The junta stormed Niger’s presidential palace in broad daylight, captured president Mamadou Tandja and his ministers in a four-hour gun battle that left at least three people dead.

Tensions had been growing in the country since Tandja, himself a former army officer, changed the constitution to allow him to stay in power beyond his legal term limit. The move provoked a political crisis and threw Niger into isolation.

There was also another attempted coup in 2011 against President Mahamadou Issoufou



Togo was the first country in West Africa to experience a military coup when on 13 January 1963 Togolese soldiers, recently demobilised from the French colonial armies and facing unemployment as a result of refusal of their applications to join ‘the miniscule Togolese army, staged an armed coup that led to the assassination of President Sylvanus Olympio.

In Jan 13, 1967 Étienne Eyadéma one of the masterminds of the 1963 coup led to another coup to overthrow Nicolas Grunitzky and then became the president until his death in 2005.



With President Taya out of the country for the funeral of the Saudi king, a group of army officers staged a bloodless coup on August 3rd 2005 and announced the formation of a military council. The council, headed by Colonel Ely Ould Mohammed Vall, said it had acted to end a “totalitarian” regime and promised to hold presidential elections within two years. Many Mauritanians welcomed the move.



On 24th February 1966, the government of Kwame Nkrumah was overthrown through a military and police coup d’état in which the key figures were Col E.K. Kotoka, Major A.A. Afrifa and Inspector General of Police J.W.K. Harlley. They made sure Nkrumah did not make a return trip to Ghana and to power again. The files of the US Central Intelligence Agency declassified in 1999 show that USA has been trying to influence people to overthrow President Kwame Nkrumah since 1964. The CIA backed coup in Ghana was part of the Cold War conflict of the time as President Nkrumah was seen as an ally of Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

In 31 December, Jerry John Rawlings staged the second successful military coup in Ghana overthrowing Dr. Hilla Limann’s constitutional government.



On 12 April military leaders detained Prime Minister and presidential candidate Carols Gomes Jr (known as Cadogo) and interim President Raimundo Pereira, going on to appoint failed presidential candidate Manuel Serifo Nhamajo as president of a proposed two-year transitional government in a move which the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) deemed “illegal” and which has also been strongly condemned by the UN Security Council, European Union, African Union and CPLC.

Since 1994 no elected president in Guinea-Bissau has finished his mandate.



The Nato powers overthrew Gaddafi did not do so because he was a tyrannical ruler, but because he pursued a nationalist policy which was at odds with western policies in the Middle East.

Western and regional governments share responsibility for much that has happened in Libya, but so too should the media. The Libyan uprising was reported as a simple-minded clash between good and evil. Gaddafi and his regime were demonized and his opponents treated with a naïve lack of skepticism and enquiry. The foreign media have dealt with the subsequent collapse of the Libyan state since 2011 mostly by ignoring it, and politicians have stopped referring to Libya as an exemplar of successful foreign intervention.

As a result of the coup Libya is still imploding into a militia country. Its oil exports have fallen from 1.4 million barrels a day in 2011 to 235,000 barrels a day. Militias hold 8,000 people in prisons, many of whom say they have been tortured. Some 40,000 people from the town of Tawergha south of Misrata were driven from their homes which have been destroyed.

Muammar al-Gaddafi himself overthrew the monarchy in Libya in 1960. Gaddafi’s successor, Prime Minister Ali Zeidan, survived two coup attempts in 2013 in space of 5 months.



Nigeria is the epicenter of coup d’état in Africa having seen 8 of them to date. Two Nigerian Military Juntas of 1966-1979 and 1983-1998 were a pair of military dictatorships in the African country of Nigeria that were led by the Nigerian Military, having a chairman or president in charge.

The first one began on January 15, 1966, when Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu and a group of Majors overthrew current Prime Minister Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa in a coup d’état (known as the coup of the five Majors). Major General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi was made the Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria. Aguiyi-Ironsi was then overthrown and murdered in a coup in July of the same year and succeeded by General Yakubu Gowon, who held power until 1975, when he was overthrown in a bloodless coup by a group of soldiers that wanted to return civilian rule to Nigeria.


Brigadier (later General) Murtala Mohammed, who succeeded General Gowon, was not directly involved in this coup, but did help round up soldiers for the coup. A year later, in 1976, Mohammed was assassinated in a violent coup, but Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ escaped assassination and become the head of state.. Three years later, in 1979, Ọbasanjọ handed power to the elected Shehu Shagari, which ended the military regime and installed a Nigerian Second Republic.


The second Junta: Shagari, however, was overthrown in a bloodless coup in 1983 and succeeded by Muhammadu Buhari, who was appointed Chairman of the Supreme Military Council of Nigeria and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces by the junta. Buhari ruled for two years, until 1985, when he was overthrown by General Ibrahim Babangida, who appointed himself with the position of President of the Armed Forces Ruling Council of Nigeria. Babangida promised a return of democracy when he seized power but ruled until 1993 when he temporarily handed power to the interim head of state Ernest Shonekan, being part of his promise to return democracy. Two months later, however, Shonekan was overthrown by General Sani Abacha, with former President Babangida conveniently involved with a visit to Egypt. Abacha appointed himself Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council of Nigeria. After Abacha’s death in 1998, General Abdulsalami Abubakar took over and ruled until 1999 when Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ again became head of state (via an election) and ended the junta. Incidentally Buhari is the 2015 presidential elect of Nigeria. The retired Major General had run unsuccessfully for the office of President in the 2003, 2007 and 2011 elections.



The 1973 Rwandan coup was a military coup staged by Juvénal Habyarimana against incumbent president Grégoire Kayibanda in the Republic of Rwanda. The coup took place on 5 July 1973 and was bloodless.

In the months prior to Habyarimana’s coup, President Kayibanda had intensified persecution of ethnic Tutsi through the formation of Hutu vigilante committees to ensure enforcement of the required ethnic quotas. This policy had isolated Rwanda economically and diplomatically, especially from neighboring Uganda which housed large numbers of Tutsi. Consequently the 1973 coup was largely supported by the urban population and met with indifference amongst the rural communities.

Prior to the coup Habyarimana had been a General in the Rwandan army. Immediately after seizing power Habyarimana outlawed all political parties but in 1974 created his own.


Burkina Faso

On October 15 in 1987, President Thomas Sankara was assassinated in a coup organized by his former colleague Blaise Compaoré.  Sankara seized power in a 1983 popularly supported coup at the age of 33, with the goal of eliminating corruption and the dominance of the former French colonial power.

Blaise Compaoré was later to be deposed in 2014, 27 years after he took over power by a lieutenant colonel in Burkina Faso’s presidential guard. Lieutenant Colonel Yacouba Isaac Zida was elected unanimously to lead the transition period opened after the departure of President Blaise Compaore.”



The Barre-led military junta that came to power after a coup d’état in 1969. Guerrilla forces later performed successful coup against the Barre government in Somalia. After 21 years of military rule, Barre’s Supreme Revolutionary Council was eventually forced from power in the early 1990s by a coalition of armed opposition groups. The guerrilla forces included the Somali Salvation Democratic Front in the northeast, the Somali National Movement in the northwest, and the United Somali Congress in the south.


The list of these coups galore across the African continent goes on. In retrospect, the results of military rule in this vast continent have been very disappointing indeed. Military intervention has not always been conducted to ‘rescue’ the nation from political ills. Coups have been linked directly or indirectly with personal ambitions and the craving for power by some specific key players. Besides being unable to solve the problems they set out to solve in the first place, military regimes in some cases have created situations that did not exist with civilian governments. Military rule has not necessarily been free of incompetence, corruption and maladministration that their civilian predecessors were alleged to have encouraged.

The coups whether successful or not saw a systematic ‘political genocide’ where thousands of leftists ‘disappeared’, deaths, cancelling of upcoming elections, abrogating the Constitution, censoring of media, banning of all kind of protests, and the declaration of martial law nationwide, curfews, organizations being de-legalized, and suspension of university classes.

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With all the talk about Africa countries being under listed in the Third World countries, she's still the most economically viable continent in the world.

  Africa generally, is a highly resourceful continent with a great return on investments if we can be able to strategize and tap rightly into the huge economic market. Let's face the obvious, 80% of new businesses and startups will fail or crumble for one evitable reason or another within the first three to five years of getting started. And we ask why?

       Workshops are being conducted throughout the nation for the sole purpose of equipping the citizens with entrepreneurial skills. Though these workshops and exercises are economically beneficial to the citizens in these countries, without an extensive business plan, start up entrepreneurs will most likely crumble.

Nigeria has the largest startup ecosystem in Africa, coming ahead of Kenya, South Africa and Rwanda; Lagos and Abuja being the Silicon Valley of the majority of these startup businesses in Nigeria. Though, other states in the country like Enugu, Imo, Nasarawa, Anambra, etc. has been conducting such entrepreneurial programs to empower the youths in the state.

   The problem however, being faced by a lot of people is knowing the right African business idea to invest in. It may be a bit more challenging for those who may not fully understand the twists and turns in the African market to invest in.

  These problems occur both in sole proprietorship, partnership, corporations or co-operatives. Though these problems are very much evitable, they're still very cancerous and epidemic.


Poor Marketing: the effect of marketing on the success of a start up cannot be over emphasized. As much as you need a great product to win, you also need a great marketing strategy to convert that product into a continuous source of revenue. Thanks to advance in technology, marketing has been made easier and manageable through the internet. For instance, social media has become a reliable business platform for entrepreneurs and small business owners. Hand crafters, makeup artists, photographers, fashion designers, etc market their products and skills on the social media platforms.

   This advance in technology if well applied or used in the field of marketing will work magic in promoting products, services and businesses.

Building The Wrong Product: building a product without really validating if that is the right product for the market is a total roadmap to economical disaster.

 Running Out of Cash or Investment Offers: because small scale businesses are mostly private owned, low capital has become one of the basic ailments affecting the small scale businesses in Africa and beyond. Not having enough capital or investors, unapproved grants and loans has plunged majority of the small scale businesses into early financial crisis. Some business owners would say it's mostly unnecessary to have a stable financial ground before venturing into a business or trade as long as you have the right marketing scheme and genuine product.  As much as this is somewhat agreeable and a serious move towards accomplishing the set out target/goal; it is also an unhealthy business plan and a likely unrecoverable risk, [don't venture into a capital consuming business without a firm financial backup, it is suicide].

Not Thinking Long Term: the thoughts of most business owners may go like his, “work for three-five years, retire and relax into life”. What they don't know is that, their businesses would most likely not survive past the first three years.

Weak Team and Poor Leadership: a typical example of a poor leader is one who cannot recruit and motivate the most talented people for the job, on which the startup's success depends.

     The list of course exceeds this but hopefully with the few listed above, sole proprietors, corporations, etc would work hard towards attaining and maintaining fine profits and a business line.


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Skin bleaching must mean a whole lot to the bunch of people who have strongly decided to alter their skin tone. To some people, it's a socio-cultural necessity that must be achieved or else their social world begins to crumble; which is reflective in the world today where beauty is now being relied on ones skin tone rather than ones personality. Light skin is seen by many as more desirable and admirable, dark-skinned women find it awfully difficult to love and be comfortable in their own skin.

Skin bleaching or whitening has unfortunately become a common socio-cultural phenomenon in many countries. Emphasis are being laid more on the skin color rather than attitude and personality.

  These lightening products are used by women around the world in order to obtain blemish-free, lighter and brighter skin tones. Yet, the health warnings associated with using these often dangerous skin bleaching products are often ignored or just taken less seriously.

Nigeria tops the list of countries where women use these products most. According to the World Health Organization, 77% of Nigerians use skin bleaching products on a daily basis and believe it or not, this is not just narrowed down to the female users. Other countries where skin bleaching is popular includes Kenya, USA, Thailand and South Africa.

In case you’re considering doing the same to your skin, perhaps you should memorize these 5 health tips first:

1. Skin bleaching is not trying to be “white”.

In many African countries light-skinned women are considered more beautiful and admirable than their black counterparts. This fueled backstreet skin whitening markets with vendors selling their own skin bleaching products and injections assuring to give you an American skin color. But then, these women who use these products aren't even trying to be white, it's more about fitting in and feeling more accepted by their society.